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Effectiveness of SDF in arresting root caries in different fluoridated areas

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At the 94th General Session & Exhibition of the International Association for Dental Research, researcher Edward Lo, University of Hong Kong, SAR, China, presented a study titled "Effectiveness of SDF in Arresting Root Caries in Different Fluoridated Areas." The IADR General Session is being held in conjunction with the 3rd Meeting of the IADR Asia Pacific Region and the 35th Annual Meeting of the IADR Korean Division.

The objective of this research study was to compare the effectiveness of annual application of silver diammine fluoride (SDF) solution on arresting root caries in community-dwelling elders living in water fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas. This study was conducted in a water fluoridated area (Hong Kong) and also in a non-fluoridated area (Guangzhou). Healthy community-dwelling elders who had at least five teeth with exposed root surfaces and not indicated for extraction were recruited and randomly allocated into one of two groups: Gp1 (placebo control) - annually application of soda water; Gp2 (test) - annual application of a 38% SDF solution. Individual oral hygiene instruction and fluoridated toothpaste was provided to all subjects. The status of dental root surfaces were clinically examined by calibrated examiners at baseline and every six months.

A total of 533 elders with 138 root surfaces with active caries lesion were recruited at baseline, 260 elders with 84 active root caries lesions in HK and 273 elders with 54 active root caries lesions in GZ, respectively. After 18-months, 75 (54%) of these lesions were reviewed, 51 and 24 in HK and GZ, respectively. The proportions of active lesions that had become arrested were 32% and 75% in Gp1 and Gp2 in HK (X2 test, P<0.05), and 11% and 87% in Gp1 and Gp2 in GZ (X2 test, P<0.05), respectively. The difference in caries arrest rates in the SDF groups in HK and in GZ were not statistically significant (X2 test, P>0.05).

Based on the 18-month result, the researchers concluded that the annual application of 38% SDF solution can arrest root caries in community-dwelling elders. Furthermore, background water fluoride level does not have a statistically significant influence on the effectiveness of SDF. This clinical trial is still ongoing and longer-term results will be reported later.

 

Researchers investigate prevalence of gingivitis during 1st/2nd trimesters of pregnancy

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At the 94th General Session & Exhibition of the International Association for Dental Research, researcher Michael Reddy, University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA, will present a study titled "Gingivitis During the First/Second Trimesters of Pregnancy." The IADR General Session is being held in conjunction with the 3rd Meeting of the IADR Asia Pacific Region and the 35th Annual Meeting of the IADR Korean Division.

This investigation evaluated the effects of gestational age, study site, and demographic factors on first and second trimester pregnancy gingivitis using baseline data from a large multicenter study. Screening was conducted to identify pregnant women between 8-24 weeks of gestational age with at least 30 gingivitis bleeding sites. Trained examiners measured whole mouth gingivitis scores at up to 168 sites using a standard 4-point clinical index (Loe-Silness GI), and bleeding site counts were determined by subject. Using baseline values, regression analysis was used to analyze the natural history of gingivalinflammation during the late first trimester through the second trimester of pregnancy.

For this study, 817 women were screened. Baseline gingivitis measures were collected on 746 women, and 666 evaluable women with 30+ bleeding sites were included in this baseline analysis. Mean gestational age at gingivitis examination was 17.1 weeks, while maternal age averaged 27.8 years, ranging from 18-46. The gingival inflammation mean was 51.2 sites, ranging from 30-144. From the regression analysis, study site and maternal age were significant factors in gingival bleeding. Centers differed by 4.0 gingival inflammation and younger women presented with higher measured gingival inflammation. Gestational age and ethnicity were not significant factors in gingival bleeding during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy.

Clinical examination of 600+ pregnant women showed moderate-to-severe gingivitis to be common, well-established and relatively stable in the late first and second trimester, and regular dental care prior to and during pregnancy may be critical to maintaining oral health.

 

What is gingivitis? What causes gingivitis?

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What is gingivitis? What causes gingivitis?

Gingivitis means inflammation of the gums (gingiva). It commonly occurs because of films of bacteria that accumulate on the teeth - plaque; this type is called plaque-induced gingivitis. Gingivitis is a non-destructive type of periodontal disease. If left untreated, gingivitis can progress to periodontitis, which is more serious and can eventually lead to loss of teeth.

A patient with gingivitis will have red and puffy gums, and they will most likely bleed when they brush their teeth. Generally, gingivitis resolves with good oral hygiene - longer and more frequent brushing, as well as flossing. Some people find that using an antiseptic mouthwash, alongside proper tooth brushing and flossing also helps.

 
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