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Health Benefits of Quitting Smoking

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After 20 minutes: Blood pressure and pulse rate returns to normal.

Temperature of hands and feet increases to normal.

8 hours: carbon monoxide and oxygen level in blood returns to normal.

24 hours; circulation improvers, energy level improves, lung function increases up to 30 %.

1 month: most nicotine withdrawal symptoms disappear.

3 month: cilla regrow in lungs, increase in their ability to clean themselves and reduce infection.

1 year: risk of coronary disease is half that of smoker.

10 year: risk of lung cancer is 30 – 50 % that of continuing smoker.

15 year: stroke risk same as non-smoker. Risk of coronary heart disease same as a non-smoker.

Dental benefit of quite Smoking

Initial and continuing benefits:

Improved gingival and oral tissue health.

Improved taste sensation after 48 hours.

Prevents bad breath.

Minimize tooth staining.

Smoker’s palate disappears shortly after cessation of smoking.

 

 

U of T researchers lead study to determine individualized smoking cessation treatments - Genetics are key

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By Paul Cantin, posted Tuesday, September 7, 2010

Quitting smoking is hard, and researchers at the University of Toronto and the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) have discovered one reason why: it’s in the genes.

Each smoker has a different genetic makeup, which influences their response to different treatments to help them quit. Now, these researchers plan to determine how to best personalize treatments to maximize the effectiveness of smoking cessation efforts.
Millions of adults in North America try to quit smoking every year, but the success rates of smoking cessation treatments vary widely. And there are no personalized approaches to helping smokers quit that have been translated into clinical practice.

The international study, led by Professor Rachel Tyndale at U of T and CAMH and Professor Caryn Lerman at the University of Pennsylvania, will investigate the pharmacogenetics of nicotine addiction treatment. It is backed by a $12-million (U.S.) grant through the National Institute of Health’s Pharmacogenomics Research Network initiative, a group of scientists from across North America focused on understanding how genes affect a person’s response to medicines.


Previous research led byTyndale identified a genetically informed marker that reflects individual differences in how quickly nicotine breaks down in the body. This biomarker can be used to predict the success of different smoking cessation treatments for individual smokers. The new study will determine how to translate this biomarker into clinical practice.

“This marker has the potential to help clinicians choose the best medication for people trying to quit, based on their genetics, and thus improve cessation response,” said Tyndale, a professor of pharmacology at U of T, and Canada Research Chair in Pharmacogenetics and head of pharmacogenetics for CAMH. “This is the first prospective randomized trial using a genetically informed biomarker to optimize smoking treatment on an individual level.”

The biomarker, referred to as the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), reflects genetic variation in the CYP2A6 gene, as well as environmental influences on nicotine metabolism. In this study, 1350 adult smokers will have their NMR assessed to determine whether they metabolize nicotine slowly or quickly. They will then be sorted into two groups - slow metabolizers and normal metabolizers - and randomized to treatment with either placebo, a nicotine patch, or Pfizer’s Chantix (varenicline). Each participant will also provide genetic material (DNA) which will be used to identify additional gene variants that may also contribute to the nicotine addiction treatment response. The prospective, double-blind placebo controlled trial will be completed within the next four years.

 

Smoking Linked to Bladder Cancer

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Smoking strongly increases a person's risk of developing bladder cancer - a risk that the majority of the population seems to be unaware of, according to a new analysis conducted by researchers from the University o f Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center.

"The general public understands that cigarette smoking can lead to lung cancer, but very few people understand that it also can lead to bladder cancer," study co-author James E. Montie said.

The researchers compiled data from all studies in the MEDLINE database that had been conducted on the connection between
bladder cancer and smoking between 1975 and 2007. The correlation between smoking behavior and bladder cancer risk, they found, was strong. For example, one study found that a person's risk of developing bladder cancer goes down by 40 percent within the first four years of quitting smoking.

Yet the general population remains unaware of this connection, the researchers also found, as are
patients who have been diagnosed with bladder cancer. Only 22 percent of bladder cancer patients surveyed knew that smoking increases the risk of developing the disease.

"A big gap exists between patient knowledge and their actual risk," co-author Seth A. Strope said. "Our study suggests that physicians must do a much better job of communicating the risk to our patients, and directing them toward smoking cessation programs."

Bladder cancer is one of the most expensive forms of cancer to treat. In the United States, it is the fourth most common cancer in men in the ninth most common in
women, with more than 47,000 new cases diagnosed in men and 16,000 in women each year. The higher prevalence in men is believed to be due to the fact that male sex hormones play a role in the development of the disease.

Other than smoking, risk factors include being African-American or Hispanic and having a family history of the cancer. Exposure to secondhand smoke is also a suspected risk factor.

 
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All subjects in this section are prepared by Dr. Nasim Lavasani Pham.D of Tehran Medical University.

Send your request to lavasani@dentii.info .